What steroids bring to athletes and why they are not recommended to everyone.
Steroid hormones are widely used in many areas of medical activity. Like other hormonal drugs, they are surrounded by many myths and prejudices. Consider them in more detail. The first steroid hormones were isolated in 1935 and were first used in 1949 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Steroid hormones in USA are synthesized by the adrenal cortex and gonads (source). They are lipophilic, pass through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, interacting with cytoplasmic receptors. Among the steroid hormones synthesized by the human body, there are:
- Sex hormones
At the same time, synthetic steroid hormones – anabolic steroids – have been widely used.
Anabolic steroid term – how it became so popular in America
The term “anabolic” reflects the ability of these substances to enhance protein synthesis in various organs and tissues, maintain a positive nitrogen balance and cause weight gain. In the USSR, these drugs came in the 60s of the last century. To increase strength at that time, athletes literally ate them at breakfast, steroids were considered something like vitamins. But after the Olympics in Montreal (1976), they were recognized as doping and banned in professional sports. Often, these drugs are perceived only as a means used to improve athletic performance, so according to various sources, from 70 to 90% of professional bodybuilders used them at least once in their lives. They are synthesized on the basis of male sex hormones, have anabolic effects (stimulate synthesis, the process of updating the structural elements of cells and tissues). Anabolic steroids affect protein metabolism, calcium-phosphorus metabolism, the synthesis of intracellular enzymes, hormonal balance, etc. As a result of their action, anabolic processes prevail over catabolic processes in the body. Let us consider in more detail their effect on the body. The effect of anabolic on protein metabolism lies in their effect on the genetic apparatus of the cell. They block the protein synthesis depressant gene, enhancing the synthesis of both structural proteins and RNA and DNA. The permeability of cell membranes for amino acids, trace elements and carbohydrates increase. A positive nitrogen balance is established. At the same time, they contribute to the fixation of calcium in the bones.an increase in bone mass in osteoporosis. By increasing cell proliferation and increasing the activity of alkaline phosphatase produced by osteoblasts. Anabolic steroids stimulate the synthesis of intracellular enzymes, especially cytochromes, due to which the processes of tissue respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, the formation of ATP and creatine phosphate, which are necessary for many biochemical processes, are enhanced. They increase the rate of glycogen synthesis, enhance the action of insulin, potentiate the action of endogenous growth hormone, activate reparative processes in the integumentary and glandular epithelium, stimulate the production of erythropoietin, increase the absorption of amino acids in the small intestine, increase appetite, the concentration of plasma albumin, and increase body weight.
It should be remembered that buying steroids in USA leads to a sharp increase in the absorption of protein by the body. In this regard, against the background of therapy, the proportion of protein in the diet should be increased, and the reduction of fats and carbohydrates. Currently, allegations that anabolic steroids adversely affect the sexual function of men can be considered devoid of good reason. In therapeutic dosages, they cause an increase in sexual desire with a simultaneous improvement in the morphological state of the gonads. However, with uncontrolled use of anabolic steroids by amateur athletes, serious side effects may occur. The male sex hormone testosterone, the content of which all anabolic steroids sin to one degree or another, is mainly responsible for them. One of these effects is, the so-called “steroid rage.” At the heart of its mechanism is the ability of testosterone to regulate sexual behavior by acting on the testosterone receptors of the brain. At the same time, manifestations of aggression and rage are characteristic. But with prolonged abuse of anabolic, manic-depressive psychosis can replace aggression. At the same time, prolonged overdose can cause impaired synthesis of endogenous testosterone by Leydig cells. At the same time, an increase in libido is noted at first, but then oligospermia, impotence and hypogonadism replace it. The development of osteoporosis is also possible. The anabolic activity of a particular drug is evaluated in comparison with the anabolic activity of testosterone, taken per unit. Androgenic activity is determined in a similar way. The ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity is called the anabolic index. The most valuable from a therapeutic point of view is the drug with the highest anabolic index as an indicator of the predominance of anabolic activity over androgenic. Thus, the drug methandrostenolone in comparison with testosterone has equal anabolic and 100 times reduced androgenic activity. Phenobolin in relation to testosterone is a high anabolic and low androgenic activity. Virilization usually does not cause. Retabolil high anabolic activity, prolonged action (3-4 weeks), its androgenic activity is weaker than that of phenobolin. Sinabolin has high anabolic activity, prolonged action (10-14 days), androgenic activity is weak. Methylandrostenediol has greater anabolic activity than testosterone.
- violation of protein metabolism (after severe injuries, operations, burns, radiation therapy)
- severe infectious diseases accompanied by protein loss
- progressive muscular dystrophy, glucocorticoid-induced myopathy
- diabetic angiopathy
- the need to accelerate the regeneration of fractures, injuries
- slow growth of children (Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome, pituitary dwarfism)
- delayed puberty (sexual infantilism) and physical development in boys
- encephalopathy on the background of alcoholic hepatitis
- anemia in chronic renal failure, myelofibrosis, myelosclerosis, myeloid bone marrow aplasia (refractory to conventional therapy),
- bone marrow lesions with metastases of malignant neoplasms, myelotoxic drugs and salts of heavy metals
- prostate cancer
- malignant breast tumors in men
- breast carcinoma in women with hypercalcemia (able to activate osteoclasts and cause bone resorption)
- pregnancy (has embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, can cause muscularization of the female fetus)
- acute and chronic liver diseases
- nephroti syndrome
- chronic heart failure
- coronary atheroscleosis
- myocardial infarction (including history)
- elderly age
- childhood and adolescence (risk of premature closure of epiphyseal growth zones, early puberty in boys and virilization in girls)
- dyspeptic symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain),
- impaired liver function,
- hypocoagulation state with a tendency to bleeding
- leukemoid syndrome (leukemia, pain in the long bones)
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Other: progression of atherosclerosis (increased LDL concentration and decreased HDL concentration)
- peripheral edema.
With prolonged use / overdose:
- hepatonecrosis (dark feces, vomiting mixed with blood, headache, discomfort, respiratory failure)
- hepatocellular carcinoma
- hepatic purpura (dark urine, discoloration of feces, urticaria, pinpoint or macular hemorrhagic rashes on the skin and mucous membranes, pharyngitis or tonsillitis)
- cholestatic hepatitis (yellow staining of the sclera and skin, pain in the right hypochondrium, dark urine, discolored feces)
- increased secretion of the sebaceous glands
- chills increase or decrease in libido
- diarrheafullness of stomach
- sleep disturbance.
- In women: virilization (enlargement of the clitoris, coarsening or hoarseness of the voice, dys- and amenorrhea, hirsutism, acne steroid, oily skin), hypercalcemia (depression of the central nervous system, nausea, vomiting, increased fatigue).
- In men: in the prepubertal period – manifestations of excessive androgenic activity (acne, enlargement of the penis, priapism, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics), idiopathic hyperpigmentation of the skin, slowdown or termination of growth (calcification of the epiphyseal growth zones of the tubular bones). In the post-puberty period – bladder irritation (increased frequency of urges), mastodynia, gynecomastia, priapism, decreased sexual function; elderly – hyperplasia and / or carcinoma of the prostate gland.
- Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, corticotropin, sodium-containing preparations and foods rich in sodium potentiate (mutually) fluid retention in the body, increase the risk of edema, and increase the severity of acne.
- Enhances the effects of antiplatelet agents, indirect anticoagulants, insulin and oral antidiabetic agents (inhibits their biotransformation)
- Weaken — STH and its derivatives (accelerates the mineralization of epiphyseal zones of growth of tubular bones).
- enhance the effect of anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and hypoglycemic agents, as well as side effects of hepatotoxic drugs.
Our conclusion: you should be Very careful when. You buy steroids in USA and when you decide to use them cause our list of side effects is very serious and taking steroids without appropriate American doctors’ notices and instructions.